7th year Sabbath & Jubilee Year

Christ died on the end of the“48th” day, sabbathed (rested) over the “49th” day and rose from the tomb on the “50th” day from Wave Sheaf. (For explanation concerning "48th, 49th, and 50th day" please go to: The "Old" Covenant in Time)

And the Lord said to Moses on Mount Sinai, “Say to the people of Israel, when you come into the land which I give you, the land shall keep a sabbath to the Lord. Six years you shall sow your fields, and six years you shall prune your vineyard, and gather in its fruits; but in the seventh year there shall be a sabbath of solemn rest for the land, a Sabbath to the Lord; you shall not sow your fields or prune your vineyard. What grows of itself in your harvest you shall not reap, and the grapes of your undressed vine you shall not gather it shall be a year of solemn rest for the land….And you shall count 7 weeks of years, seven times seven years, so that the time of the seven weeks of years shall be to you 49 years. Then you shall hallow the fiftieth year, and proclaim liberty throughout the land to all its inhabitants; it shall be a jubilee for you, when each of you shall return to the property and each of you shall return to his family. A jubilee shall that fiftieth year be to you; in it you shall neither sow, nor reap what grows of itself, nor gather the grapes from the undressed vines. For it is a jubilee; it shall be holy to you; you shall eat what it yields out of the field…..Leviticus 25:1-12

Deuteronomy 15:1- "At the end of every seven years you shall grant a release. 2 And this is the manner of the release: every creditor shall release what he has lent to his neighbor; he shall not exact it of his neighbor, his brother, because the LORD's release has been proclaimed. 3 Of a foreigner you may exact it; but whatever of yours is with your brother your hand shall release. 4 But there will be no poor among you (for the LORD will bless you in the land which the LORD your God gives you for an inheritance to possess), 5 if only you will obey the voice of the LORD your God, being careful to do all this commandment which I command you this day. 6 For the LORD your God will bless you, as he promised you, and you shall lend to many nations, but you shall not borrow; and you shall rule over many nations, but they shall not rule over you. 7 "If there is among you a poor man, one of your brethren, in any of your towns within your land which the LORD your God gives you, you shall not harden your heart or shut your hand against your poor brother, 8 but you shall open your hand to him, and lend him sufficient for his need, whatever it may be. 9 Take heed lest there be a base thought in your heart, and you say, 'The seventh year, the year of release is near,' and your eye be hostile to your poor brother, and you give him nothing, and he cry to the LORD against you, and it be sin in you. 10 You shall give to him freely, and your heart shall not be grudging when you give to him; because for this the LORD your God will bless you in all your work and in all that you undertake. 11 For the poor will never cease out of the land; therefore I command you, You shall open wide your hand to your brother, to the needy and to the poor, in the land. 12 "If your brother, a Hebrew man, or a Hebrew woman, is sold to you, he shall serve you six years, and in the seventh year you shall let him go free from you. 13 And when you let him go free from you, you shall not let him go empty-handed; 14 you shall furnish him liberally out of your flock, out of your threshing floor, and out of your wine press; as the LORD your God has blessed you, you shall give to him

The 7th year was a sabbath of solemn rest therefore no work in the fields but trusting the Lord to supply their/our needs. In the 7th year they were to let their slaves go free and supply them with a "start-up" supply for their own livelihood. 

Calculating the Jubilee year:  Counting Years to Jubilee

There are two ways to count for Jubilee, one is right.

One way counts the 50th twice as follows:  1,2,….49,50 which is also counted as 1 (sun, mon, etc) thus putting 49 years between Jubilee and 98 years instead of 100. That method follows the weekly pattern of Sabbath, the 49th and Sunday the 50th thus making the 50th also the 1st year. Following this method there are no landmarks along the way nothing fits. This method also makes the 50th year Sabbath into a Sunday as well. 


* The following text is a statement by Jesus concerning himself and would identify him as releasing the captive… thus qualifying it for either the 7th year Sabbath or Jubilee.  Statement made 27/28 A.D.  Jesus was baptized 27AD and after 40 days in the wilderness of temptation in 28AD read from Isaiah the following:

Luke 4:18-19 "The Spirit of the Lord is upon me, because he has anointed me to preach good news to the poor. He has sent me to proclaim release to the captives and recovering of sight to the blind, to set at liberty those who are oppressed, 19 to proclaim the acceptable year of the Lord.“

(this was Christ's’ first sermon after his baptism/anointing)

If we follow the first method and begin with the date 537/38 B.C. (decree by Cyrus to let the captives return home) it doesn’t fit with the statement made by Jesus as being a "Jubilee" however it fits perfectly as a 7th year of release  

Method #2

Leviticus 25: 20 And if you say, 'What shall we eat in the seventh year, if we may not sow or gather in our crop?' 21 I will command my blessing upon you in the sixth year, so that it will bring forth fruit for three years. 22 When you sow in the eighth year, you will be eating old produce; until the ninth year, when its produce comes in, you shall eat the old.

From this text we see after the 7th year (sabbath year) there wasn’t a 1st year (Sunday) but a continuation of years…7,8,9,10 and so forth; also remembering that the Jubilee year was considered a “sabbath” as well… 2 Sabbaths together. The precedent set by the 7th, 8th, 9th and so forth would then be carried on to Jubilee…49,50,51….100 thus making 50 years in-between Jubilee instead of 49.  So lets try it out…

Crossing the BC to AD dateline: (The last Jubilee held in BC would have been BC37 making BC36 the 51st year and the beginning of the next count cycle)

BC Counting every 7 years for Feast of Booths “Year of Release”  7 x 7 to the 49th year then 50th Jubilee:    36 35 34 33 32 31 30 29 28 27 26 25 24 23 22 21 20 19 18 17 16 15 14 13 12 11 10 09 08 07 06 05 04 03 02 01 01 02 03 04 05 06 07 08 09 10 11 12 13 14/15 Jubilee. Working with the Julien calendar from Day of Atonement to Day of Atonement being in the fall of the year (7th month Day of Atonement) the end of Jubilee year would also be the beginning for the 7 year count since it is still in the same year....15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 and so on.

Now from the beginning:
The Israelites left Egypt in the Passover season of 1627 BC (1661yrs - 34AD=1627) and were 40 years in the wilderness: 1627 – 40 = 1587 B.C. Should have been firsts Jubilee but the Children of Israel were already worshiping other gods: Judges 2:10+20.

The Israelites entered Canaan in the year 1587 B.C.

1587 was the beginning year for the countdown to the 49th and 50th year. Thus: 1587,1537,1487,1437 and so on to the year of the siege of Jerusalem. The Babylonians laid siege to Jerusalem in the year 588, which would have been the 49th year if the Israelites had been keeping the jubilee as they should have. The siege provided for the 49th year “rest” for the land and Jubilee 587 for they were in siege and could not keep their fields or vines. They were thus carried away captive in the year 586 and Jerusalem was destroyed. (Ezra 3:1-6; Nehemiah 8:17-18; Jer. 31:33-34; 34:13-17) Jubilee encompasses a full year so 586 was the end of the Jubilee year...Jubilee began on the Day of Atonement and ran until the next years Day of Atonement.

Joel 1:8-12, 15-18 (American Standard Version) 8 Lament like a virgin girded with sackcloth for the husband of her youth.  9 The meal-offering and the drink-offering are cut off from the house of Jehovah; the priests, Jehovah's ministers, mourn.  10 The field is laid waste, the land mourneth; for the grain is destroyed, the new wine is dried up, the oil languisheth.  11 Be confounded, O ye husbandmen, wail, O ye vinedressers, for the wheat and for the barley; for the harvest of the field is perished.  12 The vine is withered, and the fig-tree languisheth; the pomegranate-tree, the palm-tree also, and the apple-tree, even all the trees of the field are withered: for joy is withered away from the sons of men.  15 Alas for the day! for the day of Jehovah is at hand, and as destruction from the Almighty shall it come.  16 Is not the food cut off before our eyes, yea, joy and gladness from the house of our God?  17 The seeds rot under their clods; the garners are laid desolate; the barns are broken down; for the grain is withered.  18 How do the beasts groan! The herds of cattle are perplexed, because they have no pasture; yea, the flocks of sheep are made desolate. This sounds very similar to what will happen in the last days just before Jesus comes.

Leviticus 26:27-35,41,42 (NKJV)  27 And after all this, if you do not obey Me, but walk contrary to Me,  28 then I also will walk contrary to you in fury; and I, even I, will chastise you seven times for your sins.  29 You shall eat the flesh of your sons, and you shall eat the flesh of your daughters.  30 I will destroy your high places, cut down your incense altars, and cast your carcasses on the lifeless forms of your idols; and My soul shall abhor you.  31 I will lay your cities waste and bring your sanctuaries to desolation, and I will not smell the fragrance of your sweet aromas.  32 I will bring the land to desolation, and your enemies who dwell in it shall be astonished at it.  33 I will scatter you among the nations and draw out a sword after you; your land shall be desolate and your cities waste.  34 Then the land shall enjoy its sabbaths as long as it lies desolate and you are in your enemies’ land; then the land shall rest and enjoy its sabbaths.  35 As long as it lies desolate it shall rest—for the time it did not rest on your sabbaths when you dwelt in it…. 41 and that I also have walked contrary to them and have brought them into the land of their enemies; if their uncircumcised hearts are humbled, and they accept their guilt—  42 then I will remember My covenant with Jacob, and My covenant with Isaac and My covenant with Abraham I will remember; I will remember the land. Also see 2 Chronicles 36:20, 21

Jeremiah 25:11-12 (NKJV) 11 And this whole land shall be a desolation and an astonishment, and these nations shall serve the king of Babylon seventy years. 12 ‘Then it will come to pass, when seventy years are completed, that I will punish the king of Babylon and that nation, the land of the Chaldeans, for their iniquity,’ says the LORD; ‘and I will make it a perpetual desolation.

Joel 2:1  1 Blow ye the trumpet in Zion, and sound an alarm in my holy mountain; let all the inhabitants of the land tremble: for the day of Jehovah cometh, for it is nigh at hand;

Jeremiah 34:8,9+17  This is the word that came to Jeremiah from the Lord, after King Zedekiah had made a covenant with all the people who were at Jerusalem to proclaim liberty to them; 9 that every man should set free his male and female slave-a Hebrew man or woman-that no one should keep a Jewish brother in bondage...(They signed the agreement then went back on their word and retook their slaves.) 17 Therefore thus says the Lord; 'You have not obeyed Me in proclaiming liberty, every one to his brother and every one to his neighbor. Behold, I proclaim liberty to you,' says the Lord-to the sword, to pestilence, and to famine! and I will deliver you to trouble among all the kingdoms of the earth.

End of siege; city falls; Jer. 39:1, 2 & Ezekiel 40:1 (Day of Atonement and end of the year of Jubilee) 586 After the disposed land had enjoyed its “Sabbath” for seventy years to make up for the centuries of neglect, the returned and chastened captives were much more ready to observe these regulations (Josephus, Antiquities, XII;8;1 XIV:10;6; XV:1:2) See also Ezra 3:1 & Nehemiah 8:13-17 The 70 years began with the 1st captives lead away 20 years earlier. Continuing the count for Jubilee, when the Israelites were allowed to return to their homeland 537 B.C. 1st decree of Cyrus was also a Jubilee. Ezra 1:1-3  1 Now in the first year of Cyrus king of Persia, that the word of Jehovah by the mouth of Jeremiah might be accomplished, Jehovah stirred up the spirit of Cyrus king of Persia, so that he made a proclamation throughout all his kingdom, and put it also in writing, saying,  2 Thus saith Cyrus king of Persia, All the kingdoms of the earth hath Jehovah, the God of heaven, given me; and he hath charged me to build him a house in Jerusalem, which is in Judah.  3 Whosoever there is among you of all his people, his God be with him, and let him go up to Jerusalem, which is in Judah, and build the house of Jehovah, the God of Israel (he is God), which is in Jerusalem. The first jubilee celebrated in the land of Canaan would have been 487 B.C. Remembering that Jubilee begins on the Day of Atonement and lasts an entire year thus ending the following year Day of Atonement. So 588 would be the 49th year 587 would be Jubilee and so on.
Continuing the count…. 487, 437,387,337,287,237, 187,137, 87, 37 B.C., 14, 64, 114, 164, ..314...1864/65, 1914/15, 1964/65, 2014/15. 

Between 487 BC (1st Jubilee celebrated in Canaan after Babylon captivity) and 2014 AD there are exactly 2500 years.

2500 divided by 50 is 50

Interesting to note: Remember the 49th year was also a year of release so the 49/50 year cycle encompassed 3 years.

  • 313 The Edict of Milan was a letter signed by emperors Constantine I and Licinius proclaiming religious toleration in the Roman Empire (313 would have been the 49th year release)
  • 1863-1865 President Lincoln issues the final Emancipation Proclamation freeing all slaves in territories held by Confederates.
  • 1963-65 John F. Kennedy Submits Civil Rights Legislation
  • 1964 LB Johnson signs it into law...A Jubilee Year

The Emancipation Proclamation was a presidential proclamation issued by President Abraham Lincoln on January 1, 1863,… Thus pressed, Lincoln staked a large part of his 1864 presidential campaign on a constitutional amendment to abolish slavery uniformly throughout the United States. Lincoln's campaign was bolstered by separate votes in both Maryland and Missouri to abolish slavery in those states. Maryland's new constitution abolishing slavery took effect in November 1864. Slavery in Missouri was ended by executive proclamation of its governor, Thomas C. Fletcher, on January 11, 1865….To ensure the abolition of slavery in all of the U.S., Lincoln pushed for passage of the Thirteenth Amendment. Congress passed it by the necessary two-thirds vote on January 31, 1865, and it was ratified by the states on December 6, 1865

Kennedy called the congressional leaders to the White House in late October, 1963 to line up the necessary votes in the House for passage. The bill was reported out of the Judiciary Committee in November 1963, and referred to the Rules Committee, whose chairman, a Democrat and avid segregationist indicated his intention to keep the bill bottled up indefinitely.
Johnson's appeal to Congress

The assassination of John F. Kennedy on November 22, 1963, changed the political situation. His successor, President Johnson in his first address to a joint session of Congress on November 27, 1963, told the legislators, "No memorial oration or eulogy could more eloquently honor President Kennedy's memory than the earliest possible passage of the civil rights bill for which he fought so long."
The Civil Rights Act of 1964, enacted July 2, 1964 is a landmark piece of civil rights legislation that outlawed discrimination based on race, color, religion, sex, or national origin. It ended unequal application of voter registration requirements and racial segregation in schools, at the workplace and by facilities that served the general public (known as "public accommodations")

There is, however, another Covenant that God has made with His children  Exodus 31:15  Work shall be done for six days, but the seventh is the Sabbath of rest, holy to the Lord.  Whoever does any work on the Sabbath day, he shall surely be put to death.  16 'Therefore the children of Israel shall keep the Sabbath to observe the Sabbath throughout their generations as a perpetual covenant.  17 'It is a sign between Me and the children of Israel forever; for in six days the Lord made the heavens and earth, and on the seventh day He rested and was refreshed'" All of "Abraham's" seed both genetically and thru faith are "Israel".

*As it appears now 2013 would have been the “49th” year “A Holy Sabbath to the Lord” and year of release and then 2014/15 would be Jubilee.  So why didn't it happen? Or perhaps it did and we just didn't get it!

At the end of the nation of Israel just before their captivity to Babylon they set their slaves free but then took them back again. (Jeremiah 34:6-20) In essence we did the same thing. Although we set our slaves free in 1864/65 we didn’t incorporate them into society as we should have but kept them uneducated and poor.  In 1964/65 we gave them the vote but put them on social welfare which is in turn a type of slavery.

2014/15 Jubilee should have happened but after the council and signatures signed on documents nothing really came of it!???  Christian persecution rose by 80% in 2014 Read Dan. 9:1-15+ compare with Lev. 26, & Deut 28… Blessings and Curses.

Here is what did happen: XLVIII World Day of Peace 2015 - No longer slaves, but ... www.vatican.va › messages › peace › documents › pap...XLVIII World Day of Peace 2015, No longer slaves, but brothers and sisters, 8 December 2014. ... as the result of an authoritative divine decree, without the exercise of personal freedom: in a ... seen as a crime against humanity,[4] has been formally abolished throughout the world. ... From the Vatican, 8 December 2014

Now did all those countries really set their slaves free?



While China is affected by modern slavery within its own borders, the realities of global trade and business make it inevitable that China, like many other countries globally, will be exposed to the risk of modern slavery through the products it imports. Policymakers, businesses, and consumers must become aware of this risk and take responsibility for it. Table 1 below highlights the top five products (according to US$ value, per annum) imported by China that are at risk of being produced under conditions of modern slavery.52

Table 1Imports of products at risk of modern slavery to China
Product at risk of modern slavery Import value
(in thousands of US$)
Source countries
Laptops, computers, and mobile phones 1,602,835 Malaysia
Fish 1,457,973 Indonesia, Japan, Russia, South Korea, Taiwan, Thailand
Coal 954,000 North Korea
Apparel and clothing accessories 821,835 Argentina, Brazil, India, Malaysia, Thailand, Vietnam
Sugarcane 755,999 Brazil

Laptops, computers, and mobile phones are the top product category at risk of modern slavery imported by China. In 2015, China imported a total value of US$1.6 billion of these electronic products from Malaysia, which has been found to use forced labour to produce them.53 Fish imports from various countries considered at-risk amounted to nearly US$1.5 billion. China also engages in coal trade with North Korea, which allegedly uses state-imposed forced labour to sustain many of its economic sectors, including the coal industry.54 In total, China imported US$954 million worth of coal from North Korea. China sources about US$820 million worth of clothing and accessories from four Asian countries (India,55 Malaysia,56 Thailand,57 and Vietnam58) as well as two South American countries (Brazil,59 Argentina60) which are suspected of subjecting workers to forced labour in this industry. China receives more than 50 percent of its overall sugarcane imports from Brazil, which is suspected of using modern slavery in its production (worth US$756 million).  

This is just one report but if you watch the news or investigate for yourself you should realize that we are a world using slavery 

Daniel 9:1-15 In the first year of Darius the son of Ahasu-e'rus, by birth a Mede, who became king over the realm of the Chalde'ans-- 2 in the first year of his reign, I, Daniel, perceived in the books the number of years which, according to the word of the LORD to Jeremiah the prophet, must pass before the end of the desolations of Jerusalem, namely, seventy years. 3 Then I turned my face to the Lord God, seeking him by prayer and supplications with fasting and sackcloth and ashes. 4 I prayed to the LORD my God and made confession, saying, "O Lord, the great and terrible God, who keepest covenant and steadfast love with those who love him and keep his commandments, 5 we have sinned and done wrong and acted wickedly and rebelled, turning aside from thy commandments and ordinances; 6 we have not listened to thy servants the prophets, who spoke in thy name to our kings, our princes, and our fathers, and to all the people of the land. 7 To thee, O Lord, belongs righteousness, but to us confusion of face, as at this day, to the men of Judah, to the inhabitants of Jerusalem, and to all Israel, those that are near and those that are far away, in all the lands to which thou hast driven them, because of the treachery which they have committed against thee. 8 To us, O Lord, belongs confusion of face, to our kings, to our princes, and to our fathers, because we have sinned against thee. 9 To the Lord our God belong mercy and forgiveness; because we have rebelled against him, 10 and have not obeyed the voice of the LORD our God by following his laws, which he set before us by his servants the prophets. 11 All Israel has transgressed thy law and turned aside, refusing to obey thy voice. And the curse and oath which are written in the law of Moses the servant of God have been poured out upon us, because we have sinned against him. 12 He has confirmed his words, which he spoke against us and against our rulers who ruled us, by bringing upon us a great calamity; for under the whole heaven there has not been done the like of what has been done against Jerusalem. 13 As it is written in the law of Moses, all this calamity has come upon us, yet we have not entreated the favor of the LORD our God, turning from our iniquities and giving heed to thy truth. 14 Therefore the LORD has kept ready the calamity and has brought it upon us; for the LORD our God is righteous in all the works which he has done, and we have not obeyed his voice. 15 And now, O Lord our God, who didst bring thy people out of the land of Egypt with a mighty hand, and hast made thee a name, as at this day, we have sinned, we have done wickedly. 16 O Lord, according to all thy righteous acts, let thy anger and thy wrath turn away from thy city Jerusalem, thy holy hill; because for our sins, and for the iniquities of our fathers, Jerusalem and thy people have become a byword among all who are round about us. 17 Now therefore, O our God, hearken to the prayer of thy servant and to his supplications, and for thy own sake, O Lord, cause thy face to shine upon thy sanctuary, which is desolate. 18 O my God, incline thy ear and hear; open thy eyes and behold our desolations, and the city which is called by thy name; for we do not present our supplications before thee on the ground of our righteousness, but on the ground of thy great mercy. 19 O LORD, hear; O LORD, forgive; O LORD, give heed and act; delay not, for thy own sake, O my God, because thy city and thy people are called by thy name."  This is my prayer as John the Revelator ended with Rev. 22:20 He who testifies to these things says, "Surely I am coming soon." Amen. Come, Lord Jesus!

                          There shall be signs in the Heavens

“And I will show wonders in the heavens, and in the earth, blood and fire and pillars of smoke. The sun shall be turned into darkness, and the moon into blood, before the coming of the great and awesome day of the Lord.” Joel 2:30-31

Blood Moons: April 15, 2014 Passover....October 8 2014 Booths.... April 4 2015 Passover....September 28, 2015 Booths...= 4 Blood Moons

Total Eclipse of the Sun March 30, 2015 happens on Nisan 1 the beginning of the “Sanctuary Year”

*It has been 7 years since Jubilee should have happened 2014.

*Depending on the sunset/beginning of feast of Booths it has been 7 years as well.

* It has been 177 years since 1844 (there were 177 days in the “Sanctuary Year” (3 feasts schedule)

*483 years (Daniels prophecy to the coming of an anointed one: Dan 9:25 )  since 1538…King Henry VIII decreed a Bible in the English language should be put in every church in England (also the feast of Trumpets for beginning of the 7th month anti-type) Using the math for an Anti-type day = 33.893 years, 1 hr would then =1.41 years. 1.41 yrs x 5hrs from 3pm; Jesus died on cross to the last possible sunset “nautical” = 7 yrs.

So 2021 should be a remarkable year!  We will wait patiently to see what our Lord has in mind!!!!! Should we desire the Lords return?  Please Look for your self, the Bible is full of texts!  Also… Acts of the Apostles pg 33…We should ever keep it fresh in our minds…Evangelism pg 624…dwell upon; pg 187…theme for study…Fundamentals of Christian Education pg 336…keep, before our churches…Great Controversy pg 340…we should desire…Revelation 22:20 He who testifies to these things says, “Surely I am coming soon.” Amen. Come, Lord Jesus”.

*Please the intent of this study is NOT to set a date or year for the 2nd Coming!!!!! It is merely to point out that we are in fact nearing His soon return and that the events now taking place are of extreme importance. If anything this knowledge should lead us to great care and study in preparation for eternity. It should compel us to join in the mission of saving the lost!!!! WE are on the razor edge of time and all our thoughts should be central to that theme. As we can see the above dates all fit into history perfectly, like stepping stones giving credence to the times we are now living in.**** End of the year 2014 New Development!!!!!! In "Benchmarks of the Beast Power" by Doug Batchelor.......The Pope had a document written up  that the world leaders signed stating that they would not tolerate slave trade in their countries, talk about a counterfeit to the real Jubilee!!! Satan knows his time is short and he's pulling out all the stops!


                                     Silence in Heaven

Let's have a look at Revelation 8:1-5 (NKJV)  When He opened the seventh seal, there was silence in heaven for about half an hour. (One hour = 1.41 Sanctuary years so 1/2 hour would be 7 months.  Now it reads "about" so perhaps less or more) And I saw the seven angels who stand before God, and to them were given seven trumpets.  (Trumpets waiting to blow) Then another angel, having a golden censer, came and stood at the alter. He was given much incense, that he should offer it with the prayers of all the saints upon the golden alter which was before the throne.  And the smoke of the incense, with the prayers of the saints, ascended before God from the angel's hand.  ( Saints are still praying for themselves and for others...Probation not closed yet! Could it be that the "silence in heaven" was due to the fact that all of heaven is emptied, that the Angels (please see Matt. 13:39, Joel 3) have come to earth to help us or to finish the work because God loves us so much and He knows we are weak and can't do it all by ourselves.  They; all heaven are coming to our rescue, all of heaven emptied on our behalf.  How loving a Savior we serve. 5 Then the angel took the censer, filled it with fire from the alter, and threw it to the earth. And there were noises, thunderings, lightnings, and an earthquake.  (Probation ended)  

But for "about" 7 months ALL heaven will be working with us for the salvation of the lost, our families, kids, friends all for whom we have prayed for so many years.   What a God we serve.  Praise the Lord!!!!!